FreeBSD provides built-in support for managing dial-up
PPP connections using ppp(8)
The default FreeBSD kernel provides support for
which is used to interact with a modem hardware.
Configuration is performed by editing at least one configuration file, and configuration files containing examples are provided.
ppp is used to start and manage connections.
In order to use a
PPP connection, the following items are needed:
A dial-up account with an Internet Service Provider (
A dial-up modem.
The dial-up number for the
The login name and password assigned by the
IP address of one or more
DNS servers. Normally, the
ISP provides these addresses. If it did not, FreeBSD can be configured to use
If any of the required information is missing, contact the
The following information may be supplied by the
ISP, but is not necessary:
IP address of the default gateway. If this information is unknown, the
ISP will automatically provide the correct value during connection setup. When configuring
PPP on FreeBSD, this address is referred to as
The subnet mask. If the
ISP has not provided one,
255.255.255.255 will be used in the ppp(8) configuration file.
ISP has assigned a static
IP address and hostname, it should be input into the configuration file.
Otherwise, this information will be automatically provided during connection setup.
The rest of this section demonstrates how to configure FreeBSD for common
PPP connection scenarios.
The required configuration file is
and additional files and examples are available in
Throughout this section, many of the file examples display line numbers.
These line numbers have been added to make it easier to follow the discussion and are not meant to be placed in the actual file.
When editing a configuration file, proper indentation is important.
Lines that end in a
: start in the first column (beginning of the line) while all other lines should be indented as shown using spaces or tabs.
2.1. Basic Configuration
In order to configure a
PPP connection, first edit
with the dial-in information for the
This file is described as follows:
2 set log Phase Chat LCP IPCP CCP tun command
3 ident user-ppp VERSION
4 set device /dev/cuau0
5 set speed 115200
6 set dial "ABORT BUSY ABORT NO\\sCARRIER TIMEOUT 5 \
7 \"\" AT OK-AT-OK ATE1Q0 OK \\dATDT\\T TIMEOUT 40 CONNECT"
8 set timeout 180
9 enable dns
12 set phone "(123) 456 7890"
13 set authname foo
14 set authkey bar
15 set timeout 300
16 set ifaddr x.x.x.x/0 y.y.y.y/0 255.255.255.255 0.0.0.0
17 add default HISADDR
- Line 1
Commands in this entry (lines 2 through 9) are executed automatically when
ppp is run.
- Line 2
Enables verbose logging parameters for testing the connection.
Once the configuration is working satisfactorily, this line should be reduced to:
- Line 3
Displays the version of ppp(8)
PPP software running on the other side of the connection.
- Line 4
Identifies the device to which the modem is connected, where
- Line 5
Sets the connection speed.
115200 does not work on an older modem, try
- Lines 6 & 7
The dial string written as an expect-send syntax.
Refer to chat(8)
for more information.
Note that this command continues onto the next line for readability.
Any command in
may do this if the last character on the line is
- Line 8
Sets the idle timeout for the link in seconds.
- Line 9
Instructs the peer to confirm the
If the local network is running its own
DNS server, this line should be commented out, by adding a
\# at the beginning of the line, or removed.
- Line 10
A blank line for readability.
Blank lines are ignored by ppp(8)
- Line 11
Identifies an entry called
This could be changed to the name of the
ISP so that
[replaceable]ISP```` can be used to start the connection.
- Line 12
Use the phone number for the
Multiple phone numbers may be specified using the colon (
:) or pipe character (
|) as a separator.
To rotate through the numbers, use a colon.
To always attempt to dial the first number first and only use the other numbers if the first number fails, use the pipe character.
Always enclose the entire set of phone numbers between quotation marks (
") to prevent dialing failures.
- Lines 13 & 14
Use the user name and password for the
- Line 15
Sets the default idle timeout in seconds for the connection.
In this example, the connection will be closed automatically after 300 seconds of inactivity.
To prevent a timeout, set this value to zero.
- Line 16
Sets the interface addresses.
The values used depend upon whether a static
IP address has been obtained from the
ISP or if it instead negotiates a dynamic
IP address during connection.
ISP has allocated a static
IP address and default gateway, replace
x.x.x.x with the static
IP address and replace
y.y.y.y with the
IP address of the default gateway.
ISP has only provided a static
IP address without a gateway address, replace
IP address changes whenever a connection is made, change this line to the following value.
This tells ppp(8)
to use the
IP Configuration Protocol (
IPCP) to negotiate a dynamic
set ifaddr 10.0.0.1/0 10.0.0.2/0 255.255.255.255 0.0.0.0
- Line 17
Keep this line as-is as it adds a default route to the gateway.
HISADDR will automatically be replaced with the gateway address specified on line 16.
It is important that this line appears after line 16.
Depending upon whether ppp(8)
is started manually or automatically, a
may also need to be created which contains the following lines.
This file is required when running
This file is used after the connection has been established.
At this point, the
IP address will have been assigned and it is now be possible to add the routing table entries.
When creating this file, make sure that
provider matches the value demonstrated in line 11 of
add default HISADDR
This file is also needed when the default gateway address is “guessed”
in a static
IP address configuration.
In this case, remove line 17 from
with the above two lines.
More examples for this file can be found in
ppp must be run as
To change this default, add the account of the user who should run
ppp to the
Then, give the user access to one or more entries in
For example, to give
permission to only the
provider: entry, add this line to the
To give the specified users access to all entries, put that line in the
default section instead.
2.2. Advanced Configuration
It is possible to configure PPP to supply DNS and NetBIOS nameserver addresses on demand.
To enable these extensions with
PPP version 1.x, the following lines might be added to the relevant section of
set ns 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199
set nbns 188.8.131.52
PPP version 2 and above:
set dns 184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11
set nbns 18.104.22.168
This will tell the clients the primary and secondary name server addresses, and a NetBIOS nameserver host.
In version 2 and above, if the
dns line is omitted,
PPP will use the values found in
2.2.1. PAP and CHAP Authentication
ISPs set their system up so that the authentication part of the connection is done using either of the PAP or CHAP authentication mechanisms.
If this is the case, the
ISP will not give a
prompt at connection, but will start talking
PAP is less secure than CHAP, but security is not normally an issue here as passwords, although being sent as plain text with PAP, are being transmitted down a serial line only.
There is not much room for crackers to “eavesdrop”
The following alterations must be made:
13 set authname MyUserName
14 set authkey MyPassword
15 set login
- Line 13
This line specifies the PAP/CHAP user name.
Insert the correct value for
- Line 14
This line specifies the PAP/CHAP password
Insert the correct value for
You may want to add an additional line, such as:
to make it obvious that this is the intention, but PAP and CHAP are both accepted by default.
- Line 15
ISP will not normally require a login to the server when using PAP or CHAP.
Therefore, disable the “set
2.2.2. Using PPP Network Address Translation Capability
PPP has ability to use internal NAT without kernel diverting capabilities.
This functionality may be enabled by the following line in
Alternatively, NAT may be enabled by command-line option
There is also
ppp_nat, which is enabled by default.
When using this feature, it may be useful to include the following
options to enable incoming connections forwarding:
nat port tcp 10.0.0.2:ftp ftp
nat port tcp 10.0.0.2:http http
or do not trust the outside at all
2.3. Final System Configuration
ppp is now configured, some edits still need to be made to
Working from the top down in this file, make sure the
hostname= line is set:
ISP has supplied a static
IP address and name, use this name as the host name.
Look for the
To configure the system to dial the
ISP on demand, make sure the
device is added to the list, otherwise remove it.
ifconfig_tun0 variable should be empty, and a file called
should be created.
This file should contain the line:
This script is executed at network configuration time, starting the ppp daemon in automatic mode.
If this machine acts as a gateway, consider including
Refer to the manual page for further details.
Make sure that the router program is set to
NO with the following line in
It is important that the
routed daemon is not started, as
routed tends to delete the default routing table entries created by
It is probably a good idea to ensure that the
sendmail_flags line does not include the
-q option, otherwise
sendmail will attempt to do a network lookup every now and then, possibly causing your machine to dial out.
You may try:
The downside is that
sendmail is forced to re-examine the mail queue whenever the ppp link.
To automate this, include
2 delete ALL
3 add 0 0 HISADDR
4 !bg sendmail -bd -q30m
An alternative is to set up a “dfilter”
to block SMTP traffic.
Refer to the sample files for further details.
2.4. Using ppp
All that is left is to reboot the machine.
After rebooting, either type:
dial provider to start the
PPP session, or, to configure
ppp to establish sessions automatically when there is outbound traffic and
does not exist, type:
It is possible to talk to the
ppp program while it is running in the background, but only if a suitable diagnostic port has been set up.
To do this, add the following line to the configuration:
set server /var/run/ppp-tun%d DiagnosticPassword 0177
This will tell PPP to listen to the specified UNIX® domain socket, asking clients for the specified password before allowing access.
%d in the name is replaced with the
device number that is in use.
Once a socket has been set up, the pppctl(8)
program may be used in scripts that wish to manipulate the running program.
2.5. Configuring Dial-in Services
An alternative to
getty is comms/mgetty+sendfax
port), a smarter version of
getty designed with dial-up lines in mind.
The advantages of using
mgetty is that it actively talks to modems, meaning if port is turned off in
then the modem will not answer the phone.
Later versions of
mgetty (from 0.99beta onwards) also support the automatic detection of
PPP streams, allowing clients scriptless access to the server.
By default the comms/mgetty+sendfax
port comes with the
AUTO_PPP option enabled allowing
mgetty to detect the LCP phase of
PPP connections and automatically spawn off a ppp shell.
However, since the default login/password sequence does not occur it is necessary to authenticate users using either PAP or CHAP.
This section assumes the user has successfully compiled, and installed the comms/mgetty+sendfax
port on his system.
has the following:
/AutoPPP/ - - /etc/ppp/ppp-pap-dialup
mgetty to run
Create an executable file called
containing the following:
exec /usr/sbin/ppp -direct pap$IDENT
For each dial-up line enabled in
, create a corresponding entry in
This will happily co-exist with the definitions we created above.
set ifaddr 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199-188.8.131.52
Each user logging in with this method will need to have a username/password in
, or alternatively add the following option to authenticate users via PAP from
To assign some users a static
IP number, specify the number as the third argument in